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Collaborative Inquiry Project: COCM© Model Development (2010 – 2012)




Building on the research Arab Muslim nurses’ experiences of the meaning of caring, a collaborative Inquiry methodology was used to further develop the COCM© nursing model for application at the bedside at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center (Gen Org) Jeddah; to guide the practice of foreign and national nurses in the care of Arab Muslim patients.  


The nurses at the bedside selected this model as our ‘nursing model’ within the KFSH&RC-Jeddah Professional Practice Model.  While various trans-cultural nursing models are available, the COCM© was selected as it was derived from research within the local context, and was a patient and family needs-driven model with practical application in the clinical setting.


A group of nurses became interested to participate in the further development and implementation of the COCM© and established a “Collaborative Inquiry Working Group” in 2010. The aim was to further develop the COCM© for application by nurses in direct patient care.


Project objectives:


  1. Define the scope of the five core components (psychosocial care, interpersonal care, cultural care, spiritual care and clinical care) and values (spiritual, cultural, professional)

  2. Identify the core knowledge needed by the bedside nurse to implement the Crescent of Care model

  3. Select of references/ resources for utilization to guide nursing care planning and implementation

  4. Development of nursing practice guidelines for the Crescent of Care model.





Collaborative inquiry (Heron, 1996) was selected to ensure that the knowledge generation utilized a scientific approach to theory development over a series of 12 work sessions.


Collaborative inquiry is “a form of action inquiry as part of the broad category of qualitative research, which focuses on repeated episodes of reflection by the inquirers within a group. Researchers use a series of cycles of action and reflection to explore a topic” (Lovering, 2004) Repetitive cycles of knowledge generation, reflection as a group on the knowledge, and action as manifested in the validation of the knowledge was used.




A set of resources and education programs for application of the model at the bedside.


These resources included a ‘resource book’ documenting the values impacting of care; core components, and core knowledge for application of the model in different clinical scenarios.


A poster was designed to summarize the model components, and different references specific to caring for Arab Muslim patients were tabulated.


A Crescent of Care workshop (4 hrs) was designed to introduce nurses to the COCM, with interactive case scenarios as the teaching strategy.


DEHC 2012 Lovering


COCM© Development Group:


King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center (Gen Org) Jeddah


  • Sandy Lovering DHSc RN CTN-A  Executive Director, Nursing Affairs – COCM© theorist, Project Primary Investigator

  • Estelle Bester PhD RN  Program Director, Nursing Practice/Research – Project Co-investigator


Colloborative Inquiry Members (alphabetical order)


  • Al Anoud Abualsaud BSN         Assistant Head Nurse

  • Mohammad Al-Atat BSN          Head Nurse

  • Mona Al-Harthi BSN                Nurse Clinician

  • Riita Antikainen BSN               Head Nurse

  • Layla Arafat BSN                    Nurse Clinician

  • Wadea Beheri PhD RN            Program Director

  • Kay Nambiar MN BSN             Education Coordinator

  • Tahani Obead BSN                 Staff Nurse

  • Jackie Pretorius BSN               Education Coordinator

  • Fadi Shatarat BSN                  Clinical Instructor

  • Hanadi Yaseen MSN BSN         Education Coordinator



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